The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2012 was adopted by both Houses of Parliament recently with an overwhelming majority. It will replace the 120-year-old Land Acquisition Act, 1894. It makes mandatory rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R) of those whose lands are acquired and ensures fair compensation for them. But the bill will also make the land acquisition process more complicated and could delay projects, perhaps even impacting India's economic growth. A close look at some key provisions of the new law.